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ریاضی - دیویدهیلبرت(ریاضیدان مشهور)
پنجشنبه 17 تیر 1389

دیویدهیلبرت(ریاضیدان مشهور)

   نوشته شده توسط: فاطمه اصفهانی    

دیوید هیلبرت (David Hilbert) ریاضیدان مشهور، در 23 ژانویه‌ی سال 1862 در شهر كوئینزبرگ (Königsberg) -شهری در روسیه‌ی فعلی- متولد شد و در 14 فوریه‌ی سال 1943 در شهر گوتینگن (Göttingen) آلمان چشم از جهان فرو بست. وی از سال 1886 تا 1895 به تدریس ریاضیات در دانشگاه كوئینزبرگ اشتغال داشت و مابقی عمر پربار علمی خود را در فاصله‌ی سال‌های 1895 تا 1930 در دانشگاه گوتینگن سپری كرد.هیلبرت را می‌توان یكی از بزرگترین ریاضیدانان تمامی اعصار دانست. وی كارهای بسیار ارزشمندی را در شاخه‌های متنوعی از ریاضیات انجام داده است. یكی از مهمترین كارهای وی صورت‌بندی اصول هندسه‌ی اقلیدسی (و به طور كلی بررسی هندسه‌ی اصل موضوعی) است؛ وی در كتاب «مبانی هندسه» (Grundlagen der Geometrie) كه در سال 1899 منتشر شد، به شرح نتایج مطالعات خود در این زمینه پرداخته است. هیلبرت بنیان‌گذار یكی از مكاتب اصلی فلسفه‌ی ریاضی با نام «صورت‌گرائی»، در اوایل قرن 20 بوده است؛ در حقیقت این مكتب بعد از اتمام مطالعات وی در بررسی اصل موضوعی هندسه بنیان گذاشته شد.

در سال 1900 و در كنگره‌ی بین‌المللی ریاضیدانان، هیلبرت فهرستی از 23 سوال حل نشده‌ی ریاضیات ارائه كرد كه به جرأت می‌توان گفت كه با قرار گرفتن «حل این سوالات» در صدر اهداف ریاضیدانان، عملاً خط مشی پیشرفت ریاضیات در قرن بیستم تعیین شد.

هیلبرت هم‌چنین علاقه‌ی مخصوصی به برخی زمینه‌های فیزیك داشته است و كارهای مهمی نیز در این زمینه‌ها انجام داده است. این علاقه بهطور خاص در تعاملات وی با انیشتین -و در راستای صورت‌بندی «نسبیت عام»- نمود پیدا كرده است.

پی‌نوشت: اگر چه نادرست بودن اهم مدعیات مكتب اصول گرایی در طی سال‌های دهه‌ی 30 به اثبات رسید اما، تا پیش از آن، مخصوصاً در سال‌های ابتدائی قرن بیستم از اقبال فراوانی در میان ریاضیدانان برخوردار بود.

از بین مساله های معروف هیلبرت تا كنون 18 سوال به طور كامل حل شده است! از 5 سوال دیگر: یك سوال به طور موضعی حل شده است، 2 سوال حل نشده باقیمانده‌اند، صورت یك سوال مبهم است و یك سوال هم به زمینه‌ای غیر از ریاضیات –فیزیك- اختصاص دارد.


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