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ریاضی - کودکان پیش از حرف زدن ریاضی یادمیگیرند!!!
پنجشنبه 24 تیر 1389

کودکان پیش از حرف زدن ریاضی یادمیگیرند!!!

   نوشته شده توسط: فاطمه اصفهانی    

دانشمندان آمریکایی و انگلیسی در بررسیهای خود نشان دادند که کودکان پیش از اینکه حرف زدن را بیاموزند می توانند اعداد را درک کنند.

محققان دانشگاه اموری و دانشگاه کالج لندن در خصوص تازه ترین کشف خود توضیح دادند: "ما نشان دادیم که کودک در 9 ماهگی می تواند صفات نسبی بیشتر از و کمتر از را از طریق اعداد درک کنند، اندازه اشیاء و مدت زمان را بفهمند و تمام این تواناییها را پیش از آموختن زبان کسب می کند."

یافته های این دانشمندان نشان می دهد که انسانها در نخستین ماههای زندگی از اطلاعات مربوط به کمیت و اعداد برای سازماندهی تجربیات خود از جهان پیرامون استفاده می کنند. این کمیت می تواند به آنها نشان دهد که اشیای مختلف چگونه رفتار می کنند.

این دانشمندان با تمرکز بر روی توسعه درک فضایی، پردازش عددی و درک زمان نشان دادند که تفاوتهای شناختی در مورد این مفاهیم با سطح نورونی اتصال دارد. برای مثال بزرگسالان اعداد کوچکتر را با طرف چپ مغز و اعداد بزرگتر را با طرف راست پردازش می کنند.

همچنین نتایج آزمایشات دیگر حاکی از آن است که بزرگسالان به سرعت از میان دو عدد، عدد بالاتر را انتخاب می کنند و این انتخاب زمانی مشکل می شود که عدد بالاتر از نظر ارزشی کوچکتر از عدد پایین تر باشد.

این دانشمندان برای ارزیابی قدرت درک کودکان، تصاویر گروهی از اشیاء را به کودکان 9 ماهه نشان دادند و دریافتند که کودکان وقتی که تصویر جدیدی را می بینند دوست دارند به آن خیره شوند. به این ترتیب این محققان توانستند با اندازه گیری طول مدتی که کودکان صرف خیره شدن به تصویر می کنند مدت زمان پردازش اطلاعات در مغز آنها را درک کنند.

زمانی که به کودکان تصاویر اشیای بزرگتری با خطوط سیاه و اشیای کوچکتر با نقاط سفید نشان داده می شد این کودکان از این الگوی رنگ برای نقشه برداری و مقایسه مفهوم "بیشتر و کمتر" اعداد و مدت زمان نیز استفاده می کردند. برای مثال اگر بیشتر اشیا با نقاط سفید بودند بچه ها به تصویر مدت زمان بیشتری نسبت به وقتی که اشیا با نوار سیاه بودند خیره می شدند. وقتی بچه ها طولانی تر نگاه می کردند این نشان می داد که آنها تفاوتهای ابعاد مرتبط با جهان پیرامون خود را درک کرده اند


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