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شنبه 23 مرداد 1389

معماهاوبازیهای ریاضی

   نوشته شده توسط: فاطمه اصفهانی    

از معماها و بازیهای ریاضی به عنوان شیوه ای جالب و آموزنده برای آموزش ریاضی یاد می شود ، شیوه ای جالب که اشتیاق و هیجان و مهارت ها را در کلاس درس می سازد .
بازیها و سرگرمیهای ریاضی با روشی غیرمستقیم دانش آموز را علاقه مند می کند تا روی مسائل جالب فکر کند و راه حل ها را حدس بزند .

آنچه پیرامون این بازیها و سرگرمیها مهم است اینست که آنها را به درستی شناخته و از قبل با زمینه ریاضی آنها آشنا باشیم .روشن است که در معما ها و بازیهای ریاضی که به درستی استفاده می شوند ، همیشه یک زمینه ریاضیاتی اساسی هست که توسط آنها در حال کشف شدن یا شکل گرفتن است  .
اما در مورد بازیها و سرگرمیهای ریاضی که برای دوره تحصیلی راهنمایی مطرح می شوند رعایت چند نکته ضروری است  .

 اولین نکته توجه به درک عددی دانش آموزان است  .تقویت درک عددی دانش آموزان یکی از اهداف کتاب های ریاضی این مقطع است که باید در معماها و بازیهای ریاضی نیز به آن توجه شود  .
در آموزش ریاضی از درک عددی (Number sense) به عنوان فهم شهودی از اعداد ، اندازه و بزرگی آنها ،روابط آنها و تاثیر عملگرهای ریاضی بر آنها یاد می شود .

حس عددی پایه و اساسی برای تمام مفاهیم و نظریات ریاضی می باشد  .
داستان حس عددی دانش آموز وقتی تامل برانگیز می شود که متوجه می شوید دوره راهنمایی به پایان رسیده است و دانش آموز شما در عبارات جبری ، معادلات و رسم خط دچار مشکل می گردد چون هنوز درک خوبی از چهار عمل اصلی در مجموعه اعداد صحیح برای او شکل نگرفته است.
البته نمی توان منکر تدریجی بودن شم عددی شد اما آیا نمی توان به این فرایند سرعت داد ؟

نکته دیگر اینکه بهتر است بازیها و معماهای ریاضی که برای این دوره خاص مطرح می شوند خودرس باشند .
فعالیت های خودرس (Self-checking activities) نیاز به حضور معلم برای تصحیح یا بازبینی نخواهند داشت ، دانش اموزان به سرعت راه حل را مرور کرده و مشکل خود را برطرف می کنند . فعالیت های خودرس کار معلمان را نیز آسانتر کرده اند .

بازیها و سرگرمیهای ریاضی باید نیم نگاهی به گسترش قدرت خلاقیت دانش آموزان نیز داشته باشند، آنجایی که دانش آموزان به یک راه حل برای معما اکتفا نمی کنند یا بعد از اینکه در بازی یا فعالیت ریاضی متبحر می شوند خود اقدام به ساخت بازیها و فعالیت های مشابه می کنند .

به عنوان آخرین نکته توجه به شکل گیری تفکر نقادانه دانش آموزان ( که یکی از اهداف حل مسئله نیزمی باشد) را نباید فراموش کرد  . یک معمای ریاضی از مسیرهای مختلفی حل می شود  ، دانش آموزان باید راه حل های مختلف را نقد کنند و بهترین راه حل را انتخاب کنند


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